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George Foster, Joseph Golden. Floodgate: An Entrepreneurial VC. Peter Ziebelman, Amadeus Orleans. In this situation, several families join together to form a group and each group buys a share of the Government distributed waste lands. The land is managed with the collective effort, and economic benefits are distributed to each family according to a family's share of land. The actual situation varies in different areas. Sub-Lease contract system This system is suitable for the land in which the landlord is reluctant to manage his lands.
In this case, the Government allows sub-leasing of the land to a farm family who is willing to manage it. A contract is made between the landlord and a tenant farmer and benefits are shared according to the contract. Professional contract system This system is suitable for developing a land-use system that needs special skills or techniques e. In this system, a commune invites tenders and a contractor with required funds having enough professional skills and interest in developing a suitable land-use system, is hired.
This system is mostly used for developing waste mountainous lands. Even after the economic reforms in China, collective, commune and state farms are still managed by collectives, communes or states. Farmers are provided with basic salary, free medical treatment and almost free housing. A farm is usually divided into different specialized groups according to the type of management and products required. The farm demands for certain production standards from each specialized group, therefore each group is provided with land and other basic investments as necessary.
If the farmers meet these production quotas, they get their basic salaries only. But, if they surpass the quotas, they will get more allowances and a share of the extra income. The distribution of extra income varies from state farm to state farms. In Wuhua county, of the 6, households who have made contracts, 2, made family contracts, 2, made group or collective contracts, and 1, made professional contracts.
All these contracts included soil and water conservation, maintenance and development of the land. Since these contracts ensure economic benefit to the farmers, they are often mobilized for land management and are encouraged to participate in the construction of engineering structures and forestry works. In fact, four professional teams of land managers were set up in each watershed for such activities.
The first team is specialized in conservation which includes professional engineers, technicians and experienced farmers. The team is responsible for constructing large engineering structures and projects and conducting forest engineering works in eroded areas. The second team has professionals in controlling sloping land collapses. In area with slight collapse, control measures are usually implemented by households near the area.
These households are also responsible for maintenance of structures and forest engineering works in their vicinity. After a slope collapse, economic forests and herbs are planted to develop the waste land and to get all the economic benefits possible from the area.
For example, a farmer named Zhang Xiangan of Mianyang commune in the Mianyang river watershed made a contract with the Commune Government, in which he was responsible for using the measures to control the area with large scale slope collapse and to maintain the structures such as check dams, silt trap dams, paring slope collapse, etc. He built his house at the mouth of the collapsed area and planted more than bamboo seedlings, palm seedlings and other profitable fruit trees.
He was very successful in converting the original waste area into an area with commodity production. Another example in Caotinggang watershed is the Dajiken Hedong Commune, which originally had a serious erosion problem but after implementing conservation works to control erosion, 67 households made contracts to maintain, manage and exploit the watershed.
They planted orange, tangerine, palm, and shaddock trees. They earned 2,, yuan RMB from the production of tons of fruits in The third team is a commune forest protection team which takes a small watershed as a management unit in which rules and regulations are enacted for forest protection.
Soil and water conservation strategy Strategic decisions of the provincial government Strategies for implementing comprehensive management of small watersheds Watershed management planning Achievements Administration for people's participation and research support The case of benefits from land leasing contractual arrangements for people's participation in WUPI watershed. Since the founding of the people's Republic of China in , a extensive soil and water conservation works have been carried out in Guangdong Province. In the beginning, it was neglected in the Guangdong Province, as it was thought that the Province did not need it due to its favourable sub-tropical warm climate and plenty of rainfall.
In , after the 4th National Conference on Soil and Water Conservation, the Provincial Government explicitly pointed out that soil and water conservation measures are needed to ensure economic development of mountainous regions, river training and for appropriate use of the land resources. In , the success of the experimental small watershed management at Wuhua, accelerated the progress of conservation works in Guangdong Province. Strategic decisions of the provincial government In , the Provincial Government accepted three important proposals submitted by the Provincial People's Congress.
They were: - control and management of seriously eroded areas in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River; - prevention and control of soil and water losses in the upper reaches of the Beijing River; - regulations for soil and water conservation in Guangdong Province. The implementation of these three decisions played an important role in the natural resource conservation and economic development of the mountainous regions in Guangdong Province.
Strategies for implementing comprehensive management of small watersheds Experience has shown that comprehensive management of small watershed km 2 facilitates mobilization of people, ensures implementation of a household responsibility system, provides a unit to coordinate conflicts. Meanwhile, a small watershed which is a natural integral unit consisting of mountains, water and farmlands, is favourable for overall planning and comprehensive management for rational utilization of water and land resources to increase production. Comprehensive small watershed management consists of overall planning and development of hilly lands, water resources, farmland, forest, road, agriculture and fisheries, simultaneously.
It also facilitates combination of forest and grasses as vegetative measures along with other engineering measures to control surface and gully erosion and to protect soil and water resources for short as well as long term economic benefits to the farmers. In Wuhua, the first effort at comprehensive small watershed management started in at its experimental pilot watershed area. Later, this experience was used for extension. In , a workshop was held in Wuhua county to exchange experiences in the comprehensive management of a small watersheds. This provided an impetus to push comprehensive management works into a new stage.
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